### Data Transmission Technologies → Topology data networks

Under the topology of the network refers to the configuration of the graph, whose vertices correspond to the end nodes of the network (such as computers) and communications equipment (eg, routers), and the edges of the physical or informational communication between nodes. ## Full mesh Full mesh

This topology requires communication nodes N N (N-1) / 2 duplex physical links. The advantage of this layout is that it connects each node to each. Thus, in the event of a node failure, there is no malfunction of other nodes in the network based on this topology.

But in practice, this type of topology is not applicable, because it is a very expensive option of building a network.

## Decomposition of the tasks of networking

Network architecture - a view of the network as a system of interrelated elements, each of which is assigned a specific private function.

In addition, each of the network elements solves a common problem. All common task is broken down into a number of small tasks that solve different network elements, ie one single task is decomposed. The interaction between all network elements through a formalized set of rules, called the protocol. Decomposition - splitting a complex task into several simple.

### Fiber Optic Transmission Lines → FOTL - Tutorial 004. Dispersion in the optical fiber

Distinguish mode dispersion, which is caused by a large number of modes in the optical fiber and the chromatic dispersion associated with the incoherence of light sources actually operating in a certain range of wavelengths. Consider the propagation of the light beam along the multimode fiber. In this case there are two modes, the two beams. The first extends along the longitudinal axis of the fiber, while the other is reflected from the interfaces of media. Thus the path of the second light beam is greater than the first. As a result, when the two beams carrying the electromagnetic energy are added together, compared oblique beam with an axial beam is the time delay, which is calculated by the following formula: c – speed of light
l – fiber length
n 1 , n 2 – refractive indices of the core and shell

### Fiber Optic Transmission Lines → FOTL - Tutorial 003. The attenuation in the optical fiber

The most important parameters are the optical fiber loss and attenuation of the transmitted energy. These parameters define the range of the FOC and on its effectiveness. Attenuation in optical fibers due to manifestation of the following losses: α c – own loss of fiber waveguides
α k – additional cable losses
α ik – absorption loss in the infrared region
α pr – the loss caused by the presence of impurities in the optical fibers

Proper loss fibers consist, in turn, an absorption loss of α p and scattering loss α r : Attenuation due to the absorption due to the losses on the dielectric polarization depends strongly on the properties of the fiber material and is calculated by the following formula: tgδ – dielectric loss tangent

The attenuation in the infrared region, situated in the wavelength range of more than 1.6 microns, calculated by the formula: C and k – constant coefficients. For quartz glass C = 0,9; k = (0,7—0,9) мкм.

### Fiber Optic Transmission Lines → FOTL - Tutorial 002.The optical fiber and its types

Depending on the number of the operating frequency propagating waves (modes) of the fibers and is separated into one multimode. The number of modes is dependent on the ratio of the diameter of the fiber core and the wavelength for optical fibers having step-index is calculated as follows. λ – wavelength,
Δ – relative refractive index difference. Since n 1 and n 2 have very similar meanings, the nominal value ∆ for most optical fibers is within ### Fiber Optic Transmission Lines → FOTL - Tutorial 001. The optical fiber - operating principle

The optical fiber is a thin glass strand bilayer, each element (core and shell) has a different refractive index. The refractive index n of transparent material is the ratio of the velocity of light in vacuo (c - velocity of light) to the speed of light in this material (v), and defined by the following formula: where ε and μ — respectively, relative dielectric and magnetic permeabilities.

Given that the relative magnetic permeability of the transparent material is usually constant and equal to one, the refractive index of the core for n 1 = √ε 1 , and for the shell n 2 = √ε 2 .

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