Deploying Qt and QML Applications on Linux and Windows

linux, Переносимость приложений, deploy, Развертывание, Qt, Run Linux Application, cqtdeployer, переносимость qt, windows, QML, deployment

Introduction

In this article we will look at how to properly collect all qt dependencies for your application, which was collected dynamically.

For a start, a little theory.

Why is this needed?

There are several ways to build applications, the main ones are:

  • Static build.
    Static assembly involves the creation of a binary, which will be all the necessary links to it. In other words, all that is needed for his work will lie in it. This approach is suitable for small console applications that have few dependencies, otherwise the size of the final binary will be extremely large.

  • Dynamic build.
    It differs from static in that only the source code of your application will be in the binary (the size of the binary will be minimal), but when you run such an application it will need third-party libraries that were used when writing it.

Now a little description.

Console-QtDeployer is a simple utility similar to windeployqt and macdeployqt . But unlike analogs, it has a much more flexible interface (launch flags) and higher speed, besides it supports 2 windows and linux platforms, which means that now we can build dependencies for windows on Linux and vice versa.

Let's take an example.

For example, I wrote a simple qt application using qml - MyApp.

MyApp (main.cpp)

#include <QGuiApplication>
#include <QQmlApplicationEngine>

int main (int argc, char * argv [])
{
    QCoreApplication :: setAttribute (Qt :: AA_EnableHighDpiScaling);

    QGuiApplication app (argc, argv);

    QQmlApplicationEngine engine;
    engine.load (QUrl (QStringLiteral ("qrc: /main.qml")));
    if (engine.rootObjects (). isEmpty ())
        return -1;

    return app.exec ();
}

MyApp (main.qml)

import QtQuick 2.9
import QtQuick.Controls 2.2

ApplicationWindow {
    visible: true
    width: 640
    height: 480
    title: qsTr ("Scroll")

    ScrollView {
        anchors.fill: parent

        ListView {
            width: parent.width
            model: 20
            delegate: ItemDelegate {
                text: "Item" + (index + 1)
                width: parent.width
            }
        }
    }
}

MyApp is linked dynamically, that is, it needs qt libraries to work.
If we try to start the application, right after the build we get an error:

~/build-MyApp-Desktop_Qt_5_11_1_GCC_64bit4-Release $ ./MyApp ./MyApp: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libQt5Qml.so.5: version `Qt_5 'not found (required by ./MyApp)
./MyApp: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libQt5Gui.so.5: version `Qt_5 'not found (required by ./MyApp)
./MyApp: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libQt5Core.so.5: version `Qt_5.11 'not found (required by ./MyApp)
./MyApp: /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu/libQt5Core.so.5: version `Qt_5 'not found (required by ./MyApp)

From similar texts, we see that the application depends on the GUI qt libraries and qml libraries. Search and build all resources (libraries and plugins) will take a lot of time.
To save time and effort, we will use the CQtDeployer utility (you can download it here )
or install in Snap Store

Download from the Snap Store

cqtdeployer -bin myApp -qmake /media/D/Qt/5.12.3/gcc_64/bin/qmake -qmlDir ./

After executing this command, you will receive a fully ready application for work with a ready launcher, which will set up all the necessary environments for your application to work on all machines running Linux.

Total

After running the QtDeployer Console, the contents of the folder with your application should look like this:

drwxr-xr-x 7 andrei andrei 4096 May 24 12:22 ./
drwxrwxr-x 3 andrei andrei 4096 May 24 12:22 ../
drwxr-xr-x 2 andrei andrei 4096 May 24 12:22 bin/
drwxr-xr-x 2 andrei andrei 4096 May 24 12:22 lib/
-rwx---rwx 1 andrei andrei  433 May 24 12:22 myApp.sh*
drwxr-xr-x 6 andrei andrei 4096 May 24 12:22 plugins/
drwxr-xr-x 5 andrei andrei 4096 May 24 12:22 qml/
drwxr-xr-x 2 andrei andrei 4096 May 24 12:22 translations/

cqtdeployer result

  • myApp.sh - your application launch script
  • bin - folder with your binary
  • lib - a folder with all the necessary dependencies of your application.
  • plugins - qt plugins needed for the application to work
  • qml - qml dependencies.
  • translations - standard qt translations.

Thus, you can prepare your application for packaging in a deb or snap package, after which you can begin to distribute it. Note that after running cqtdeployer, your application must be launched using the sh script, which will set up the necessary environment for your application.

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Напишите прожалуйста пример запуска для Windows :-)

отбой Разобрался.... После линуха сложно :-)

Возможно кому то пригодится

сqtdeployer для windows работает точно так же как и для Linux

разница лишь в команде запуска

  • Linux: cqtdeployer
  • Windows: %cqtdeployer%

Подробная инструкция использования под Windows:

  1. Качаем онлайн истолятор на момент версии 1.2.3 интерполятор не подписан, по этому Windows может ругаться.
  2. Устанавливаем
  3. Открываем cmd
  4. Пишем %cqdeployer%

Вот моя строка по которой все отлично сработало

%cqtdeployer% -bin c:/CentralMposKeys/CentalMposKeys.exe -qmake c:/Qt/5.12.2/mingw73_64/bin/qmake.exe

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Last comments
Oct. 17, 2019, 2:17 a.m.
Evgenij Legotskoj

Используем, там где требуется :)
MP
Oct. 17, 2019, 2:15 a.m.
Mikhail Petrov

Совет: подключайте ресурсы динамически. Используйте Resource Compiler: https://doc.qt.io/qt-5/rcc.html
Oct. 16, 2019, 6:45 a.m.
Evgenij Legotskoj

Если это не чистой воды спам, а по делу, то без проблем. Но в таком случае лучше создавайте отдельный вопрос на форуме . При создании вопроса есть поле, в котором можно указать статью…
KK
Oct. 16, 2019, 6:39 a.m.
Kirill Kirilych

А тут можно ссылки на сторонний ресурс показывать? Нашёл на habr похожую статью, только там чуток отличается код и про локальный сервер написано, нужно чтоб кто то понимающий посмотрел и своё …
Now discuss on the forum
Oct. 18, 2019, 1:30 p.m.
Evgenij Legotskoj

Добрый день. У вас там пробелы находятся в тексте, поэтому и не может сконвертировать. фукция map применяет float ко все символам в каждой строке. В том числе и к символам пробела. А пробе…
Oct. 17, 2019, 10:31 a.m.
Ruslan Volshebnik

Я вас понял) Спасибо ещё раз. Вы помогли мне во всём разобраться.
t
Oct. 17, 2019, 4:13 a.m.
tupo_chel

И тебе спасибо за помощь)
Oct. 17, 2019, 2:14 a.m.
Evgenij Legotskoj

Добрый день. Ну да, этот вариант жизнеспособен. Есть только один момент, который вам необходимо понимать в данном случае. И чего в этой статье или нет, или сказано как-то совсем вскользь, …
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