QML - Tutorial 038. Using the clip property to crop child objects inside Item or Rectangle

clip, OpacityMask, ListView, QML

Quite often, the same question arises on the forum regarding the problem of displaying content embedded in any QML objects.

The most common manifestation of this problem is when ListView content scrolls beyond its scope. In any case, this is one of those frequent cases when beginners encounter this problem when starting to learn QML. Well, or another option when faced with such a problem when using Rectangle objects.

In the following image below, you can see two application windows that illustrate this problem.

  • The left window shows what the layout looks like initially
  • The right window shows that if you start scrolling through ListView content, it will go under the Title text, although it should have been cropped.

Initial code example

This is what the original program code looks like.

import QtQuick 2.12
import QtQuick.Window 2.12

Window {
    visible: true
    width: 640
    height: 480
    title: qsTr("Hello World")

    Text {
        id: topText
        text: qsTr("Title")

        anchors.horizontalCenter: parent.horizontalCenter
        anchors.top: parent.top
    }

    ListView {
        width: 180; height: 200

        model: contactModel
        delegate: Text {
            text: name + ": " + number
        }

        anchors.horizontalCenter: parent.horizontalCenter
        anchors.top: topText.bottom
    }

    ListModel {
        id: contactModel
        ListElement {
            name: "Bill Smith"
            number: "555 3264"
        }
        ListElement {
            name: "John Brown"
            number: "555 8426"
        }
        ListElement {
            name: "Sam Wise"
            number: "555 0473"
        }
    }
}

To solve this problem, just set the clip: true property of ListView .

ListView {
    clip: true

    /* код */
}

And now ListView content will not go beyond ListView

Using Rectangle Objects

Similarly, clip works for Rectangle objects. Here is the program code, as well as an example before and after including clip.

import QtQuick 2.12
import QtQuick.Window 2.12

Window {
    visible: true
    width: 640
    height: 480
    title: qsTr("Hello World")

    Rectangle {
        x: 27
        y: 31
        width: 100
        height: 100
        color: "blue"
        clip: true

        Rectangle {
            x: -20
            y: -20
            width: 100
            height: 100

            color: "green"
        }
    }
}

Rounding

But what does not work when using clip is rounding, even if you adjust the radius of rounding at the parent Rectangle object.

For example, here we have such a code will not give the expected result

import QtQuick 2.12
import QtQuick.Window 2.12

Window {
    visible: true
    width: 640
    height: 480
    title: qsTr("Hello World")

    Rectangle {
        x: 27
        y: 31
        width: 100
        height: 100
        color: "blue"
        radius: 30 // set rounding
        clip: true // enable cropping

        Rectangle {
            x: -20
            y: -20
            width: 100
            height: 100

            color: "green"
        }
    }
}

The result

This clip behavior is standard and has been done for performance reasons, since almost all QML graphic elements are inherited from the Item type. This means that additional processing of masks throughout the application is redundant.

But the expected result can be achieved with the following program code using the graft effect OpacityMask

import QtQuick 2.12
import QtQuick.Window 2.12
import QtGraphicalEffects 1.13

Window {
    visible: true
    width: 640
    height: 480
    title: qsTr("Hello World")

    Rectangle {
        id: rect
        x: 27
        y: 31
        width: 100
        height: 100
        color: "blue"

        layer.enabled: true
        layer.effect: OpacityMask {
            maskSource: Item {
                width: rect.width
                height: rect.height
                Rectangle {
                    anchors.centerIn: parent
                    width: rect.adapt ? rect.width : Math.min(rect.width, rect.height)
                    height: rect.adapt ? rect.height : width
                    radius: 30
                }
            }
        }

        Rectangle {
            x: -20
            y: -20
            width: 100
            height: 100

            color: "green"
        }
    }
}

And the result will be as follows

Conclusion

In conclusion, I’ll say that clip is a very useful property, which for performance reasons was set to false by default. At the same time, this property performs only simple cropping in the form of a rectangle, and something more complex needs to be cropped using a mask.

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