SDH - Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (Part 2)

GFP, LCAS, PDH, SDH, SDH-NG, Sonet, VCAT

Compensation of frequency synchronization error

The pointer can not only fulfill a fixed phase shift and mismatch clock multiplexer clocked device, from which the user data is received. To compensate for this effect, the index value is periodically incremented or decremented.

Positive alignment - The pointer is incremented by one, reflecting the delay start of the next container VC-4, three bytes.

Negative alignment - to accommodate the "extra" bytes used three younger byte pointer, ie the NT box (the pointer itself fits in fields H1 and H2)

Typical SDH topology

Typical SDH topology

Methods to ensure network survivability

In SDH the term in the automatic protection switching (Automatic Protection Switching, APS) is used as a generic name of fault tolerance mechanisms. Usually, this mechanism is realized through the following types of backup:

  • Protection 1 + 1 means that the backup member does the same job as the principal. For example, in the protection tributary card 1 + 1 as the traffic passes through the working card (redundant), and through the protection (backup).
  • Protection of 1: 1 means that the security element is not normally perform the functions of the protected element and are only switched on in the event of failure.
  • Protection 1: N will provide the same security element at the N protected.

Equipment Protection Switching, EPS - the protection units and elements of SDH equipment.

Card Protection, CP - Protection of aggregate and tributary multiplexer card, allows the multiplexer will automatically continue to work in the event of failure of one of the aggregate or tributary cards.

Multiplex Section Protection, MSP - that is, the network portion between two adjacent SDH multiplexers, acts more selectively than with protection cards.

Sub-Network Connection Protection, SNC-P - that there is a protection path (connection) through the network for a particular virtual container allows the user to switch a specific connection to an alternate path in case of failure of the main road.

The new generation of SDH protocols

With the development of Internet information transmission system began reorienting the process to voice traffic on a computer, but the existing SDH systems were not friendly enough for this type of traffic with speeds 10/100/1000/10000 hierarchy.

As a result, the organization of ITU-T has developed several standards that make up the so-called new generation SDH technology (SDH Next Generation, or SDH NG). These standards do SDH technology more friendly to computer data.

Next Generation SDH standards define three new mechanisms:

  • Virtual Concatenation (VCAT);
  • Dynamic changes in link capacity (LCAS) scheme;
  • General procedure of encapsulation (framing) data (GFP).

Virtual Concatenation

Virtual Concatenation, VCAT of containers capacity allows the use of SDH virtual containers more efficiently by transmitting Ethernet traffic. In virtual concatenation mechanism there is precursor of - mechanism adjacent concatenation.

This mechanism has been developed for more efficient transmission of traffic ATM network; it allows to join several containers VC-4 at a rate of 140 Mbit / s into one container at a higher data rate. The coefficient of multiplicity association VC-4 containers in an adjacent concatenation mechanism can be set to 4,16,64 or 256 that can be used for the transmission of several combined (concatenated) VC-4 containers in the STM-4 frames, STM-16, STM-64, or STM-256

Virtual Concatenation allows much more efficient spending capacity SDH network with Ethernet traffic transmission. For example, to transmit one stream of Fast Ethernet 100 Mb / s, STM-16, the network can use a virtual concatenation of VC-12-46v, which provides bandwidth for user data 100,096 Mbit / s (i.e., gives an almost 100-percent loading of the combined container ) and the remaining 206 containers VC-12 (STM-4 frame accommodates 63 x 4 = 252 VC-12 containers) for use as a Fast Ethernet transmission of other flows, and to transfer voice traffic.

Scheme dynamically change link capacity

Driving dynamic change line capacity (Link CapacityAdjustment Scheme, LCAS) is in addition to the mechanism of virtual concatenation. This arrangement allows the initial multiplexer, ie the one that generates the combined container dynamically change its capacity by connecting to it or disconnecting from it a virtual containers. In order to achieve the desired effect, the source sends a final multiplexer multiplexer special service message, a notification of change in the composition of the combined container.

The general procedure for data encapsulation

Общая процедура инкапсуляции данных (Generic Framing Procedure, GFP) предназначена для упаковки кадров различных протоколов компьютерных сетей в кадр единого формата и передачи его по сети SDH.

  1. Alignment of computer speed and protocol speed SDH virtual container used for the transmission of computer data. GFP procedure supports two modes of operation: GFP-F (frame mode or Frame Mode) and GFP-T (transparent mode, or Transparent Mode)
  2. Recognition of the beginning of the frame. The procedure for detecting GFP frame is beginning its own header, which consists of a length field is two bytes in size and length of the control field and a checksum field is two bytes in size
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C++ - Test 001. The first program and data types

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M
Sept. 20, 2019, 11:25 a.m.
Mark

вызываю метод get у m_downloader в другом методе и приложение начинает вылетать. В чем ошибка?
M
Sept. 19, 2019, 5:45 a.m.
Mark

А вот как выгрузить файл на сервер по http протоколу? Допустим на regRu. И как получить путь файла, которой отображается в файловом менеджере regRu, чтобы загрузить его.
Sept. 17, 2019, 6:07 a.m.
Misha Lebedev

Кстати интересные темы нашёл тут https://emacsway.github.io/ru/django-framework/#django-models Может что полезного тоже Евгений найдёте
Sept. 17, 2019, 4:50 a.m.
Misha Lebedev

Доброго времени суток. Спасибо за хороший ответ, У меня ситуация така что в галлереи будет несколько миллионов фотографий с фильтрами и тегами , и я опасаюсь за производительност . Это ос…
Sept. 17, 2019, 3:23 a.m.
Evgenij Legotskoj

Добрый день. Да, я тоже читал ту статью в своё время и согласен с тем, что внешние ключи гораздо лучше, чем GenericForeignKey. Выборки в ряде случае работают быстрее. Но лично мне про…
Now discuss on the forum
Sept. 20, 2019, 4:56 a.m.
Pavel K.

Привет , подскажите кто-нибудь , как сделать драг н дроп , не нарушая при этом логику работы зума? import QtQuick 2.6 import QtGraphicalEffects 1.0 Page { id:win property string fi…
Sept. 19, 2019, 8:03 a.m.
Mihailll

Скопировал базу в папку пользователей и тогда получилось записывать в нее
Sept. 19, 2019, 5:32 a.m.
Mihailll

Но мне же нужно еще получить этот id и вернуть его пользователю, а при таком запросе ничего не вернется.
M
Sept. 18, 2019, 5:35 p.m.
Mark

Понятно Тогда можно ли достать только параметры файла? Например только дату его изменения
p
Sept. 17, 2019, 5:02 a.m.
pstMem

Да, действительно нужно дебажить, по другому не словить исключение. Уже решил проблему, был выход за предел массива, не правильные входные данные, так что всегда проверяйте размер массива.
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