Standardization and sources of standards
Universal argument about the benefits of standardization, which is valid for all industries, computer networks is of particular importance. The essence of the network - the connection of various equipment, and therefore there is a problem of compatibility of the most critical one. Without coordination by all producers generally accepted standards for the equipment and protocols progress in the "construction" of networks would be impossible. Therefore, all the development of the computer industry is ultimately reflected in the standards - any new technology only assumes a "legal" status, where its content is fixed in the relevant standard.
LAN Standardization conducted a large number of organizations. Depending on the status of the organization, the following types of standards:
- standards of individual firms, such as IBM SNA protocol stack of the company or a graphic OPEN LOOK interface for Unix-based systems company Sun;
- standards of ad hoc committees and associations created by several companies, such as ATM technology standards developed specially created ATM Forum association, which has about 100 collective members, or the standards of Fast Ethernet Alliance Union, concerning the 100 Mbps Ethernet technology;
- national standards such as FDDI standard, which is one of the many ANSI Standards Institute, or safety standards for operating systems, developed by the NCSC center of the US Department of Defense;
- international standards, such as the model and the stack of communication protocols of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the numerous standards of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), including standards for network packet-switched X.25, Frame Relay network, ISDN, modems and many others.
Some standards are continuously evolving, may move from one category to another. In particular, company product standards, widespread, usually become the international de facto standards as forcing manufacturers from different countries to follow the proprietary standards to ensure the compatibility of its products with these popular products.
International Organization for Standardization - ISO
Develops standards in various areas, including in the field of telecommunications. For example, the well-known series of ISO 9000. Quality Standards in the field of telecommunications one of the widely used ISO standards is a seven-layer Open Systems Interconnection model. ISO members on a voluntary basis is the national organization of standardization.
International Telecommunication Union - ITU
It is a specialized UN agency. Members of the ITU (also on a voluntary basis) are the states - participants of union. Preparatory work on the formation of standards are maintained in the following sectors of the ITU:
- ITU Radio communication Sector - ITU-R
- Telecommunication Standardization Sector of ITU - ITU-T
- Telecommunication Development Sector of ITU - ITU-D
In Europe, issues of standardization in the field of communication involved in the following organizations:
- European Telecommunications Standards Institute - ETSI determines the technical policy in the field of communication for the countries - members of the European Community;
- Conference of European Post and Telecommunications CEPT developing a European-level standards in the field of communication.
A significant role in the development of communication tools makes a non-governmental organization Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers - IEEE.
From national organizations who have made the most significant contribution to the development of communication and dealing with standardization in this area, it should be noted these organizations:
- The American National Standards Institute - ANSI - develops standards for use in the US, then many of these standards are approved by the International Organization for Standardization;
- Telecommunication Industrial Association - TIA - is one of the ANSI groups on telecommunications;
- Electric Industrial Association - EIA - is also one of the ANSI groups.