Evgenij LegotskojSept. 14, 2017, 3:05 p.m.

C++ - Tutorial 009. Modularity

The key to managing this is to clearly define the interactions among those parts. The first and most important step is to distinguish between the interface to a part and its implementation. At the language level, C++ represents interfaces by declarations. A declaration specifies all that’s needed to use a function or a type. For example:

double sqrt(double); // a square root function that takes arguments of type double and returns a variable of type double

// Declaring a class with all the necessary methods and class members
class Vector 
{
public:
    Vector(int s);
    double& operator[](int i);
    int size();
private:
    double∗ elem; 
    int sz;
};

The key point here is that the implementation of all methods and functions can be in a completely different place, in another file. Often, functions are declared in header files with the extension .h , and the implementation is performed in the source code files .cpp .

For example, the implementation of the square root function:

double sqrt(double d) // definition of sqrt()
{
    // ... algorithm as found in math textbook ...
}

Also, for the Vector class, several participants will need to be implemented:

Vector::Vector(int s) // definition of the constructor
    : elem{new double[s]}, sz{s} // initialization of participants
{
}

double& Vector::operator[](int i) // definition of an access operator
{
    return elem[i];
}
int Vector::size() // definition method size ()
{
    return sz;
}

We must define Vector’s functions, but not sqrt() because it is part of the standard library. However, that makes no real difference: a library is simply some ‘‘other code we happen to use’’ written with the same language facilities as we use.

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