Evgenij LegotskojJuly 6, 2017, 3:40 a.m.

C++ - Tutorial 005. Pointers, Arrays and Loops

An array of elements of type char can be declared like this:

char v[6];  // array of 6 characters

Similarly, a pointer can be declared like this:

char* p; // pointer to character

In declarations, [] means ‘‘array of’’ and *means ‘‘pointer to.’’ All arrays have0as their lower bound, so v has six elements, v[0] to v[5] . The size of an array must be a constant expression. A pointer variable can hold the address of an object of the appropriate type:

char∗ p = &v[3]; // p указывает на четвёртый элемент массива v
char x = ∗p; // *p является объектом, на который указывает p

In an expression, prefix unary ∗ means ‘‘contents of’’ and prefix unary & means ‘‘address of.’’ We can represent the result of that initialized definition graphically:

Consider copying ten elements from one array to another:

void copy_fct()
{
    int v1[10] = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
    int v2[10];  // to become a copy of v1

    for (auto i=0; i!=10; ++i) // copy elements
        v2[i]=v1[i];
}

This for -statement can be read as ‘‘set i to zero; while i is not 10 , copy the i th element and increment i.’’ When applied to an integer variable, the increment operator, ++ , simply adds 1 . C++11 also offers a simpler for -statement, called a range-for-statement, for loops that traverse a sequence in the simplest way:

void print()
{
    int v[] = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
    for (auto x : v)
        cout << x << '\n'; // for each x in v

    for (auto x : {10,21,32,43,54,65})
        cout << x << '\n';
}

The first range-for-statement can be read as ‘‘for every element of v , from the first to the last, place a copy in x and print it.’’ Note that we don’t hav e to specify an array bound when we initialize it with a list. The range-for-statement can be used for any sequence of elements.

If we didn’t want to copy the values from v into the variable x, but rather just have x refer to an element, we could write:

void increment()
{
    int v[] = {0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9};
    for (auto& x : v)
        ++x;
}

In a declaration, the unary suffix & means ‘‘reference to.’’ A reference is similar to a pointer, except that you don’t need to use a prefix * to access the value referred to by the reference.

T a[n];  // array of n Ts
T∗ p;    // pointer to T
T& r;    // reference to T
T f(A);  // function taking an argument of type A returning a result of type T

We try to ensure that a pointer always points to an object, so that dereferencing it is valid. When we don’t hav e an object to point to or if we need to represent the notion of ‘‘no object available’’ (e.g., for an end of a list), we give the pointer the value nullptr (‘‘the null pointer’’). There is only one nullptr shared by all pointer types:

double∗ pd = nullptr;
Link<Record>∗ lst = nullptr; // pointer to a Link to a Record
int x = nullptr; // error : nullptr is a pointer not an integer

It is often wise to check that a pointer argument that is supposed to point to something, actually points to something:

int count_x(char∗ p, char x)
    // count the number of occurrences of x in p[]
    // p is assumed to point to a zero-ter minated array of char (or to nothing)
{
    if (p==nullptr) return 0;
    int count = 0;
    for (; ∗p!=0; ++p)
        if (∗p==x)
            ++count;
    return count;
}

Note how we can move a pointer to point to the next element of an array using ++ and that we can leave out the initializer in a for-statement if we don’t need it.

In older code, 0 or NULL is typically used instead of nullptr. However, using nullptr eliminates potential confusion between integers (such as 0 or NULL ) and pointers (such as nullptr ).

We recommend hosting TIMEWEB
We recommend hosting TIMEWEB
Stable hosting, on which the social network EVILEG is located. For projects on Django we recommend VDS hosting.
Support the author Donate

Comments

Only authorized users can post comments.
Please, Log in or Sign up
Card image cap
Pulsum Via

Project for travelers from EVILEG.

Go
Fornex

Let me recommend you a great European Fornex hosting.

Fornex has proven itself to be a stable host over the years.

For Django projects I recommend VPS hosting

Following the link you will receive a 5% discount on shared hosting services, dedicated servers, VPS and VPN

View Hosting
Share on social networks
Donate

The EVILEG project has switched to a non-commercial basis and will develop solely on the enthusiasm of the site creator, the enthusiasm of users, donations and the hosting referral system

Thank you for your support

Available ways to support the project

PayPal

PatreonYandex.MoneyMore
s

C++ - Test 002. Constants

  • Result:50points,
  • Rating points-4
s

C++ - Test 001. The first program and data types

  • Result:66points,
  • Rating points-1
r

C++ - Test 002. Constants

  • Result:58points,
  • Rating points-2
Last comments

Qt/C++ - Lesson 061. Adding images to the application using the Drag And Drop method from the file manager

Доброго времени суток. А если нужно и изображение и текст? Что-то потерялся немного.... // Вместо отрисовки иконки и текста будем отрисовывать только одно изображение // с н…
AS

Qt/C++ - Lesson 004. QSqlTableModel – How to present the table from database?

error insert into TableExample " Количество параметров не совпадает" Я путь свой прописывала и даже бд удаляла, чтобы заново сделать, не работает. (всё остальное как у вас... Вроде ка…
i

Qt/C++ - Lesson 042. PopUp notification in the Gnome style using Qt

cialis powder comprare cialis online
LD

GameDev on Qt - Tutorial 1. Track mouse movement in QGraphicsScene

Вполне возможно, что ты не закинул graphicsView в дизайнере в виджет
LD

GameDev on Qt - Tutorial 1. Track mouse movement in QGraphicsScene

Кому интересно, поворот в slotTarget можно в одну строку организовать this->setRotation(90 + rotation() + qRadiansToDegrees(qAtan2(mapFromScene(point).y(), mapFromScene(point).x())));
Now discuss on the forum
K

Sorting the added QML elements in the ListModel

buy accutane online forum https://isotretinoinxp.top
  • Nomad
  • July 30, 2022, 5:42 a.m.

Как работать с HTMX?

Приветствую колеги. На днях наткнулся на вот это : https://htmx.org/ На офф сайте написанно вот такая фраза: htmx gives you access to AJAX, CSS Transitions, We…
h
  • harisr
  • July 25, 2022, 2:56 a.m.

QT - Native App Integration

Привет, у нас уже есть собственное приложение для Android. Можем ли мы интегрировать пользовательское представление QT в приложение со всем приложением QT внутри представления. Если да, ука…

Правильный запуск сервера на vps - Django

О я как то себе дома локальный сервер создавал. Вам же нужно просто сделать ручками конфигурацию системы. Настроить Nginx ну либо Apache (тут кому что нравится). Соответственно БД и всё остально…
o

Распознание объектов

Я к тому, что, возможно, софт уже есть.
About
Services
© EVILEG 2015-2022
Recommend hosting TIMEWEB