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QML - Lesson 024. Custom QQuickItem – How to add QML object from C++

Custom QQuickItem, QQuickItem, QQuickPaintedItem, Qt, QML

QML objects in Qt is quite wonderful, easy to work with them, but what if it becomes standard objects is not enough? Then you can make your own object to program it in C++ and QML implement the logic layer. In this tutorial, I suggest to make a small improvised timer that you can start, stop and clear, but the timer design will be developed in C ++ layer and in fact most of the work will be done in C ++.

And for the development of customized QuickItem need to use QQuickPaintedItem , which will be a timer shown in the figure below, which will be drawn like normal QGraphicsItem , but it will have a number of properties that can be controlled from QML layer.

Project structure for Custom QQuickItem

  • CustomQuickItem.pro - the profile of the project;
  • deployment.pri - profile of deployment project under different architectures;
  • clockcircle.h - header file of the project timer;
  • clockcircle.cpp - source file project timer codes;
  • main.cpp - the file source code of the project's main features;
  • main.qml - qml file source cod e.

CustomQuickItem.pro

To register in QML layer QQuickItem customized classes, you need to connect the module quickwidgets, as is done in the file.

TEMPLATE = app

QT += qml quick quickwidgets
CONFIG += c++11

SOURCES += main.cpp \
    clockcircle.cpp

RESOURCES += qml.qrc

# Additional import path used to resolve QML modules in Qt Creator's code model
QML_IMPORT_PATH =

# Default rules for deployment.
include(deployment.pri)

HEADERS += \
    clockcircle.h

main.cpp

#include <QGuiApplication>
#include <QQmlApplicationEngine>
#include <QQuickWidget>

#include "clockcircle.h"

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    QGuiApplication app(argc, argv);

    // All that is required in this file - is to register a new class (Type) for QML layer
    qmlRegisterType<ClockCircle>("ClockCircle",1,0,"ClockCircle");

    QQmlApplicationEngine engine;
    engine.load(QUrl(QStringLiteral("qrc:/main.qml")));

    return app.exec();
}

clockCircle.h

Because this object is an object that must be accessible from QML layer, it is necessary to all of its properties to determine how the Q_PROPERTY , which will be listed all the setters and getters, respectively, signals of change in these properties. In addition there are several Q_INVOKABLE class methods that are also available from QML layer. It's clear(), start(), stop() , they will be made from the interface control timers.

Properties in timer will be several:

  • m_name - Name of the object;
  • m_backgroundColor - the background color of the timer;
  • m_borderNonActiveColor - the background color of the rim (circular progress bar), in the unfilled state;
  • m_borderActiveColor - the background color of the rim, filling the progress bar;
  • m_angle - angle of rotation of the active part of the progress bar;
  • m_circleTime - the current time of the timer.

#ifndef CLOCKCIRCLE_H
#define CLOCKCIRCLE_H

#include <QtQuick/QQuickPaintedItem>
#include <QColor>
#include <QBrush>
#include <QPen>
#include <QPainter>
#include <QTime>
#include <QTimer>

class ClockCircle : public QQuickPaintedItem
{
    Q_OBJECT
    Q_PROPERTY(QString name READ name WRITE setName NOTIFY nameChanged)
    Q_PROPERTY(QColor backgroundColor READ backgroundColor WRITE setBackgroundColor NOTIFY backgroundColorChanged)
    Q_PROPERTY(QColor borderActiveColor READ borderActiveColor WRITE setBorderActiveColor NOTIFY borderActiveColorChanged)
    Q_PROPERTY(QColor borderNonActiveColor READ borderNonActiveColor WRITE setBorderNonActiveColor NOTIFY borderNonActiveColorChanged)
    Q_PROPERTY(qreal angle READ angle WRITE setAngle NOTIFY angleChanged)
    Q_PROPERTY(QTime circleTime READ circleTime WRITE setCircleTime NOTIFY circleTimeChanged)

public:
    explicit ClockCircle(QQuickItem *parent = 0);

    void paint(QPainter *painter) override; // Override the method in which the object will be rendered to our

    // Methods available from QML for ...
    Q_INVOKABLE void clear();   // ... time cleaning ...
    Q_INVOKABLE void start();   // ... start the timer, ...
    Q_INVOKABLE void stop();    // ... stop the timer, ...

    QString name() const;
    QColor backgroundColor() const;
    QColor borderActiveColor() const;
    QColor borderNonActiveColor() const;
    qreal angle() const;
    QTime circleTime() const;

public slots:
    void setName(const QString name);
    void setBackgroundColor(const QColor backgroundColor);
    void setBorderActiveColor(const QColor borderActiveColor);
    void setBorderNonActiveColor(const QColor borderNonActiveColor);
    void setAngle(const qreal angle);
    void setCircleTime(const QTime circleTime);

signals:
    void cleared();

    void nameChanged(const QString name);
    void backgroundColorChanged(const QColor backgroundColor);
    void borderActiveColorChanged(const QColor borderActiveColor);
    void borderNonActiveColorChanged(const QColor borderNonActiveColor);
    void angleChanged(const qreal angle);
    void circleTimeChanged(const QTime circleTime);

private:
    QString     m_name;                 // The name of the object
    QColor      m_backgroundColor;      // The main background color
    QColor      m_borderActiveColor;    // The color of the border, filling with the progress bezel timer
    QColor      m_borderNonActiveColor; // The color of the background of the border
    qreal       m_angle;                // The rotation angle of the pie chart type, will generate progress on the rim
    QTime       m_circleTime;           // Current time of the timer

    QTimer      *internalTimer;         // The timer, which will vary according to the time
};

#endif // CLOCKCIRCLE_H

clockcircle.cpp

All of the code relating to the setters and getters properties can automatically generate the context menu by right-clicking on the written Q_PROPERTY. Note only setAngle (const qreal angle), as it is modified to reset the angle of rotation.

#include "clockcircle.h"

ClockCircle::ClockCircle(QQuickItem *parent) :
    QQuickPaintedItem(parent),
    m_backgroundColor(Qt::white),
    m_borderActiveColor(Qt::blue),
    m_borderNonActiveColor(Qt::gray),
    m_angle(0),
    m_circleTime(QTime(0,0,0,0))
{
    internalTimer = new QTimer(this);   // Initialize timer
    /* Also connected to the timer signal from the lambda function 
     * Structure lambda functions [object] (arguments) {body}
     * */
    connect(internalTimer, &QTimer::timeout, [=](){
        setAngle(angle() - 0.3);                    // rotation is determined in degrees.
        setCircleTime(circleTime().addMSecs(50));   // Adding to the current time of 50 milliseconds
        update();                                   // redraws the object
    });
}

void ClockCircle::paint(QPainter *painter)
{
    // Отрисовка объекта
    QBrush  brush(m_backgroundColor);               // Choose a background color, ...
    QBrush  brushActive(m_borderActiveColor);       // active color of border, ...
    QBrush  brushNonActive(m_borderNonActiveColor); // not active color of border

    painter->setPen(Qt::NoPen);                             // remove the outline
    painter->setRenderHints(QPainter::Antialiasing, true);  // Enable antialiasing

    painter->setBrush(brushNonActive);                          // Draw the lowest background in a circle
    painter->drawEllipse(boundingRect().adjusted(1,1,-1,-1));   // with adjustment to the current dimensions, which
                                                                // will be determined in QML-layer.
                                                                // It will not be an active background rim

    // The progress bar will be formed by drawing Pie chart
    painter->setBrush(brushActive);                         // Draw rim active in the background, depending on the angle of rotation
    painter->drawPie(boundingRect().adjusted(1,1,-1,-1),    // to fit to the size of the layer in QML
                     90*16,         // The starting point
                     m_angle*16);   // the angle of rotation, which is necessary to render the object

    painter->setBrush(brush);       // the basic background of the timer, which overlap on top
    painter->drawEllipse(boundingRect().adjusted(10,10,-10,-10));   // Border (aka the progress bar) will be formed
}

void ClockCircle::clear()
{
    setCircleTime(QTime(0,0,0,0));  // Clean up time
    setAngle(0);                    // Expose turn to zero
    update();                       // update object
    emit cleared();                 // Emits a clear signal
}

void ClockCircle::start()
{
    internalTimer->start(50);       // Start the timer in increments of 50 ms
}

void ClockCircle::stop()
{
    internalTimer->stop();          // stops the timer
}

QString ClockCircle::name() const
{
    return m_name;
}

QColor ClockCircle::backgroundColor() const
{
    return m_backgroundColor;
}

QColor ClockCircle::borderActiveColor() const
{
    return m_borderActiveColor;
}

QColor ClockCircle::borderNonActiveColor() const
{
    return m_borderNonActiveColor;
}

qreal ClockCircle::angle() const
{
    return m_angle;
}

QTime ClockCircle::circleTime() const
{
    return m_circleTime;
}

void ClockCircle::setName(const QString name)
{
    if (m_name == name)
        return;

    m_name = name;
    emit nameChanged(name);
}

void ClockCircle::setBackgroundColor(const QColor backgroundColor)
{
    if (m_backgroundColor == backgroundColor)
        return;

    m_backgroundColor = backgroundColor;
    emit backgroundColorChanged(backgroundColor);
}

void ClockCircle::setBorderActiveColor(const QColor borderActiveColor)
{
    if (m_borderActiveColor == borderActiveColor)
        return;

    m_borderActiveColor = borderActiveColor;
    emit borderActiveColorChanged(borderActiveColor);
}

void ClockCircle::setBorderNonActiveColor(const QColor borderNonActiveColor)
{
    if (m_borderNonActiveColor == borderNonActiveColor)
        return;

    m_borderNonActiveColor = borderNonActiveColor;
    emit borderNonActiveColorChanged(borderNonActiveColor);
}

void ClockCircle::setAngle(const qreal angle)
{
    if (m_angle == angle)
        return;

    m_angle = angle;

    /* This addition is made to reset the rotation when the timer 60 seconds
     * */
    if(m_angle <= -360) m_angle = 0;
    emit angleChanged(m_angle);
}

void ClockCircle::setCircleTime(const QTime circleTime)
{
    if (m_circleTime == circleTime)
        return;

    m_circleTime = circleTime;
    emit circleTimeChanged(circleTime);
}

main.qml

And now it remains only to add a new object in QML layer, set it up and see the result. In this case, there will be three buttons that will drive Q_INVOKABLE timer methods, and will be installed in our time the timer while it is based on the work of the signals and slots .

import QtQuick 2.6
import QtQuick.Window 2.2
import QtQuick.Controls 1.4
import QtQml 2.2
// Once an object is registered in the C ++ layer, it must be connected in QML
import ClockCircle 1.0

Window {
    visible: true
    width: 400
    height: 400

    ClockCircle {
        id: clockCircle
        // Set its positioning and dimensions
        anchors.top: parent.top
        anchors.topMargin: 50
        anchors.horizontalCenter: parent.horizontalCenter
        width: 200
        height: 200

        // Determine the properties that Q_PROPERTY
        name: "clock"
        backgroundColor: "whiteSmoke"
        borderActiveColor: "LightSlateGray"
        borderNonActiveColor: "LightSteelBlue"

        // Add the text that will be put up timer
        Text {
            id: textTimer
            anchors.centerIn: parent
            font.bold: true
            font.pixelSize: 24
        }

        // If you change the time, put the time on the timer
        onCircleTimeChanged: {
            textTimer.text = Qt.formatTime(circleTime, "mm:ss.zzz")
        }
    }

    Button {
        id: start
        text: "Start"
        onClicked: clockCircle.start(); // Start timer
        anchors {
            left: parent.left
            leftMargin: 20
            bottom: parent.bottom
            bottomMargin: 20
        }
    }

    Button {
        id: stop
        text: "Stop"
        onClicked:  clockCircle.stop(); // Stop timer
        anchors {
            horizontalCenter: parent.horizontalCenter
            bottom: parent.bottom
            bottomMargin: 20
        }
    }

    Button {
        id: clear
        text: "Clear"
        onClicked: clockCircle.clear(); // clean timer
        anchors {
            right: parent.right
            rightMargin: 20
            bottom: parent.bottom
            bottomMargin: 20
        }
    }
}

Video

Download software tutorial code - CustomQuickItem

Полгода назад искал как сделать такой объект, делал на QML - первое знакомство с ним было, по вашему "QML-004". А тут вот на блюдечке все готово) Попробуем потом переделать как в вашем 032 уроке, сравним кто шустрее.

Самый шустрый будет как раз в уроке 032. Там же OpenGL!!!

Когда на работе стояла такая задача, я сначала реализовал в этом уроке 024 по QML, но понял, что при большом количестве объектов ой как плохо CPU тянет, в итоге разобрался с OpenGL и всё стало работать с пол пинка. Реально быстрее отрисовывает. Всё-таки CPU не должен графикой заниматься ))

Comments

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МК
Jan. 13, 2019, 8:35 p.m.
Мария Канева

C++ - Test 005. Structures and Classes

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Jan. 13, 2019, 8:32 p.m.
Мария Канева

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Jan. 13, 2019, 8:28 p.m.
Мария Канева

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Last comments
I
Jan. 16, 2019, 8:06 a.m.
IscanderChe

Заработало. Забыл model->select(); вписать.
I
Jan. 16, 2019, 8:02 a.m.
IscanderChe

Всё равно пусто, хотя строка с данными в базу добавляется.
Jan. 16, 2019, 7:51 a.m.
Евгений Легоцкой

потому, что нужно сохранять информацию для всех остальных ролей и столбцов через вызов переопределённого метода. Да к тому же вы ещё и зациклили вызов метода data. QVariant MySqlTableModel:...
I
Jan. 16, 2019, 7:43 a.m.
IscanderChe

Сделал вот так. В tableView ничего нет, кроме заголовка. QVariant MySqlTableModel::data(const QModelIndex &index, int role) const{ if (role == Qt::DisplayRole) { QTime ...
Now discuss on the forum
Jan. 15, 2019, 4:53 p.m.
Михаиллл

Спасибо, заработало.Но выдало обычный текст без форатирования HTML.Придется искать дальше
Jan. 15, 2019, 12:52 p.m.
BlinCT

Я же вам выше написал CLion умеет работать с ремоут машинами. И Qt так же собирает.
ПБ
Jan. 14, 2019, 2:27 p.m.
Павел Богдевич

Да
m
Jan. 13, 2019, 4:52 p.m.
mihamuz

И так может кому будет интересно решил свою проблему следующим путем.Через дизайнер в базовый виджет добавил QQuickWidget (назвал его listProducts)Это соответственно убрал. this->m_qu...
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